1. Introduction

Before undertaking introducing the feed into a facility, a number of specific process operations must be carried out on the Piping and Vessels. These operations, the preparation and execution of which are an integral part of the commissioning activities, are the following:

1.1 Leak tests

General subsystems or circuits pressure tests carried out at the pipework maximum operating pressure, just before oil or gas-in. Leak tests are systematically performed on any subsystem including pipework.

1.2 Dry-out

Removal of liquid water from facilities and achievement of a given water dew-point. Drying-out is performed on all equipment internally protected by refractories and plant section designed to run at low temperatures, to avoid hydrates formation during the start-up phase.

1.3 Chemical loading

Filling-up of certain types of vessels with their packing.

1.4 Gas Inerting

Removal of oxygen from all pipework and vessels due to contain hydrocarbons. Should any of the above activities be unsuccessful, it should be repeated by the Commissioning, after the fault has been fixed by whichever Party is contractually responsible - Engineering Contractor, Vendor, Construction Contractor, Main Contractor, Commissioning - until the specification requirements are fully satisfied.

1.5 Subsea Piping and Vessels

Commissioning preparations applicable to subsea piping and vessels depending on subsea configuration.