This specification defines the minimum requirements for shop and field fabrication for non-destructive examination, inspection, pressure testing and operational testing of equipment and production systems.
All inspection and testing should conform to the requirements of this specification, other Buyer specifications and documents referenced herein and all other referenced codes and standards.
The following documents are considered part of this specification. Use the edition of each referenced document in effect on the date of the publication of this specification.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
ASME B31.8Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems
ASNT American Society of Non-destructive Examination
In the event of a conflict among the above listed standards or between the standards and other instructions listed in the specifications and drawing, it should be the Suppliers responsibility to notify the Buyer in writing for a resolution of the conflict prior to starting work.
3.0 Nondestructive Examination
All nondestructive examination should conform to the requirements and recommendations set forth by the above referenced materials and Buyer's specified requirements, as applicable.
All welds in piping, regardless of size, piping class or service, should be examined by radiography and found acceptable if tested in accordance with Buyer’s Piping Class Specification Data Sheets covering the work in question
Where less than 100 percent of welds are specified to be examined, each unacceptable weld found should increase the total number of welds to be examined by 10 welds or until 100 percent is reached.
Welds selected for examination, other than pressure piping, should be representative of each welder and welding procedure so welding quality can be established at the beginning of the work.
The percentage of radiographed welds should be evenly distributed among all welders and taken concurrently while the work is being performed.
Magnetic particle inspection may be substituted when radiography is difficult to interpret. Prior approval is required.
For all piping requiring radiographic examination, the minimum number of shots per circumferential seam should be as follows:
- Up to 2 inch diameter: 1 shot
- 2 to 4 inch diameter: 2 shots
- Over 4 inch diameter: 3 shots
The attachment welds between structural components and pressure parts of ferritic alloy materials should be magnetic particle examined after post-weld heat treatment.
If non-destructive examination is contracted as being supplied by Supplier as part of his scope of work, Supplier should be required to obtain and provide for Buyer's review the qualifications of all NDE operators and technicians who may be assigned to the work.
Qualifications of operators and technicians, who may be assigned to the work, should be provided to Buyer for review. Furthermore, all operators and technicians should be qualified as having a Level II or Level III certification as recognized by ASNT. Drug testing reports and policies for such personnel, as required by Federal law, should be provided to Buyer for review.
Prior to NDE, a written document should be issued to Buyer defining the method(s) of all proposed examination, identifying in detail the equipment to be used, calibration standards, and requirements for all subsequent re-checks.
In all circumstances, Supplier should be responsible for providing all necessary safeguards to ensure all personnel are adequately protected from or otherwise removed from the vicinity where radiographic examination is in progress.
Upon completion of each non-destructive examination, radiographic film including originals and retakes should be provided to Buyer for review.
The following documentation should be prepared by Supplier for all NDE work and should be issued to Buyer as part of the required documentation for delivery (completion):
- A map and/or drawing clearly indicating the weld(s) or items examined, with clear reference identification to the associated radiographic film (or report results for other methods of NDE).
- A written report, prepared, signed, and dated by the certified NDE technician(s), for each method of examination and covering all work examined by that method. The report(s) should identify all discovered insufficiencies, associated repairs, and the results of re-examination of the repair.
- Definition of the results obtained by any and all magnetic particle examination defining the response level, pertinent dimensions, depth, material thickness, liquid media, classification, etc.
The implementation of any magnetic particle examination or alloy verification methods should be subject to Buyer approval. Supplier should be required to demonstrate such methods are prudent and/or required, and the qualifications of associated personnel are adequate.
4.0 Pressure Testing
Supplier should be responsible for pressure testing all piping systems as defined by Buyer’s Piping Class Specification Data Sheets. Furthermore, Supplier should provide all labor, equipment and accessories needed to complete the testing. Equipment and accessories include but are not limited to hydrotest pumps, hoses, blind flanges, bolting, gaskets, plugs skillet plates, etc.
Supplier should be required to prepare a written detailed procedure for all proposed pressure testing addressing and defining Buyer's requirements and stated provisions, as specified herein. This "Pressure Testing Procedure" should be issued to Buyer for comment and approval at least two (2) weeks prior to the scheduled start of hydrostatic testing operations. A "Hydrostatic Pressure Testing Log" should also be prepared by Supplier which should reference the testing pressures, applicable procedures, and tested item identifications. The completed hydrostatic pressure testing log should be signed by Supplier and should be issued to Buyer for record as part of the delivery (completion) documentation.
Hydrostatic pressure testing of fabricated piping should conform to the requirements of ASME B31.8 and this specification. Hydrostatic pressure testing of pressure vessels should conform to the requirements of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code and this specification.
Notification should be given to Buyer at least five (5) days prior to the scheduled start of pressure testing operations to allow Buyer time to arrange for inspection. Unless otherwise approved, no pressure testing should be performed without the presence of Buyer's inspector. Buyer reserves the right to reject the results of any pressure test, unapproved as not performed in the presence of Buyer's representative, and in such case to order additional re-testing as deemed necessary. All costs associated with such re-testing, and of associated premium time to make up for lost scheduled time, should be for Supplier's account.
All pressure rated components should be tested at 1.5 times the rated maximum allowable working pressure, or as otherwise approved. The hydrostatic test pressure for each of Buyer's piping classes is stated on the Piping Class Specification Data Sheets accompanying this specification.
Any and all proposed pneumatic pressure testing of pneumatic or chemical piping, or of reinforcing pads, should conform with the provisions of the applicable code and should be otherwise subject to Buyer approval. Supplier's procedure for pneumatic pressure testing should outline safety precautions to be observed and should specify that only oil free air or nitrogen be used. A soap solution, or another approved high viscosity leak detectant, should be applied to all flanged, screwed, and welded joints undergoing the test. Supplier should also refer to the recommended provisions of API RP 14E, Section 7, and ISA RP 7.1 "Pneumatic Control Circuit Pressure Testing."
Where pneumatic pressure tests of branch and nozzle reinforcement pads are made, each pad or segment of each pad should be tested at a minimum pressure of 80 psig. A bubble test solution should be applied to the pad welds and an air pressure gauge should be used to determine pressure loss from around the pad.
High point vents and low point drains should be furnished as required.
The test pressure should be maintained for an adequate time to detect small seepage leaks and to permit a thorough inspection. The minimum time required to hold a test pressure should be one (1) hour, regardless of any other minimum code requirement.
The test media should be clean or potable water with no visible particulates. The temperature of the test media should not be less than 600F and should be allowed sufficient time to stabilize prior to pressurization.
Unless otherwise approved, pressure testing should not be performed in direct sunlight or during avoidable times when temperature equilibrium of the system may be hampered.
Pressure gauges used for the test should be of a type and range to adequately measure pressure differentials, as approved by Buyer.
Pressure and temperature recording and indicating devices/instruments should be calibrated and this calibration certified in writing. All recorded pressure and temperature charts should be signed, dated and issued to Buyer for record.
Fabricated pipe spools may be linked together for testing, as approved by Supplier's testing procedure.
If any leaks are discovered during pressure testing, their location(s) should be marked and the system should be depressurized. The leaks should be repaired to the satisfaction of Buyer's inspector, and the assembly should be re-tested.
All vessel internals and any other components deemed necessary by Buyer's inspector should be hand cleaned to remove any standing test fluid and debris after hydrostatic pressure testing.
After pressure testing and drying operations are completed and accepted, all openings should be closed and sealed to prevent any atmospheric corrosion.
After testing is complete, all bolting at piping connections should be checked for tightness since some stretching may occur. All gaskets used in flanged joints that are broken after completion of testing should be replaced with a new unused gasket.
If systems are tested in place all piping and components should be sandblasted and coated in accordance with Buyer’s Protective Coatings Specification. All outer flange facings and bolt holes are included in this requirement.
Clappers from swing check valves should be removed prior to testing. Wafer or piston check valves should be removed from the system or ensure that they are blocked open.
Ball, gate and plug valves should be in the one-half open position during testing.
The following equipment should be isolated (blinded) from pressure testing:
- Pumps, turbines, and compressors.
- ASME stamped pressure vessels, unless special permission is given by Buyer.
- Rupture discs and relief valves.
- Rotometers and displacement meters.
- Indicating pressure gauges.
- Float type level shutdown devices and controllers, when the float is not rated for the test pressure.
Instrument bridles should be attached to vessel when pressure testing. All instruments attached to the bridle that are not rated for the test pressure should be removed or isolated.
5.0 Operational Testing
Upon completion of the various phases of the project, or at convenient times during the progress of work, electrical and instruments control systems, valves, metering equipment, pumps, motors, engine drivers, starters, etc. installed by the Supplier should be functionally tested and inspected.
Testing procedures should simulate all flow, pressure, and level conditions as applicable to initiate alarms, solenoids, or other shutdown devices, concurrently with all associated instruments.
An operational testing procedure outlining the proposed methods for verifying the operational integrity of the above mentioned devices and equipment should be submitted to Buyer no later than two (2) weeks prior to the start of the operational testing.
A detailed log should be prepared of all operational testing conforming to the approved testing procedures. All test reporting should be documented and issued to Buyer.
Supplier should be responsible for ordering, verifying, and collecting records of all such testing from manufacturers of equipment and equipment components (such as described in 5.1 ) and for issuing same to Buyer for approval. The responsibility for ensuring operational testing, performed by manufacturers of equipment supplied by Supplier, conforms to Buyer's specified requirements rests with Supplier.
Operational testing performed by Supplier or manufacturers should be subject to Buyer approval.
Buyer should be notified at least five (5) days prior to operational testing so Buyer can make arrangements to witness the testing.
Buyer reserves the right to order a retest or additional testing if Buyer is not notified prior to operational tests or if the method or documentation of manufacturer's tests is deemed unsatisfactory as not in compliance with Buyer's specifications.
The proper mechanical operation of all auxiliary equipment and driven equipment should be verified, if not previously confirmed during factory testing.
The documented results of mechanical operation testing by manufacturers of equipment should be satisfactory. Motors and engine drivers should be run at rated speed and load for the time approved by Buyer.
Adequate tests should be conducted to ensure all instruments and associated connections are correctly installed and functioning properly. This should include, but not be limited to, the requirements of this specification. It should be the responsibility of the Supplier to blind flange, isolate, or remove all instruments and/or equipment which could be damaged by excessive or unbalanced pressure during testing.
The testing requirements of specialized equipment or control systems not covered by this specification should be based on the manufacturer's and/or Supplier's recommendations as approved by Buyer.
Burner components on fired equipment should be tested in accordance with manufacturer's recommendations.
All control loops should be pressurized with utility air and adequately blown out to remove debris. All connections should be soap tested for leaks.
Instrument air regulators should be set and checked at the specified supply pressure.
Utility air should be supplied to the diaphragms of control valves verifying the valves close or open properly.
The floats on level controllers should be moved manually through full travel. Operating and alarm points should be set to those required.
Activation of electrical components should be verified by supplying electrical power to the appropriate terminals. All wiring should be checked for proper installation in accordance with the unit's wiring schematic. A VOM meter should be utilized for continuity checks. Each sensor and end device should be checked individually for proper operation.
The calibration of pressure recorders and transmitters should be verified by utilizing utility air and a calibrated test gauge. A DVOM with a 0.1 percent accuracy meter, or other instruments approved by Buyer, should be used to check the Ma output of the transmitters across their full intended range.
The calibration of temperature instruments should be certified in writing by the manufacturer. Instruments, approved by Buyer, should be utilized to check the Ma output of transmitters across their full intended range.
The output of all pulse transmitters on positive displacement meters should be confirmed or certified.
Solenoid valves should be de-energized to confirm divert valves fail in the divert position. All other failure modes should be introduced to duplicate and confirm fail-safe operations.
All electrical or electronic device wiring should be tested for point to point continuity and insulation resistance prior to performing any operational tests of the equipment.
Pressure/Temperature switches (if not previously set by manufacture) should be calibrated for operation as required and then tested with a calibrated pressure/temperature source for rising and falling operating points.
Centrifugal compressors should be tested in accordance with ASME PTC 10, Performance Test Codes for Compressors and Exhausters.
The polarities of thermocouple leads should be verified at the couple head.
Recorder and indicator calibrations should be verified from zero to full scale, ascending and descending.
Known transmitter output signals should be created to verify the response of all other instruments and control valves in all loops, either manually or by applied input signals.
Buyer should have access to the works, whether in progress or completed, to inspect and determine materials, workmanship, schedule, testing, and delivery requirements are in accordance with all applicable codes, approved fabrication drawings, and Contract Documents.
Supplier should notify Buyer five (5) days prior to each pressure and operational test to verify the time of test so that Buyer can make arrangements to observe tests.
All fabrication should be subject to inspection by Supplier and Buyer. Inspection should not relieve Supplier of the responsibility of fulfilling all requirements as contracted.
All weld preparation, fit-up, and weld assemblies should be visually inspected by Supplier during all phases of fabrication. Where necessary, corrections should be made in the weld preparation to assure sound welding is being performed in accordance with the qualified welding process used. Cracks, blowholes, cold lap, unusual irregularities, undercutting, surface impurities, or any other evidence of poor workmanship should be cause for rejection.
Buyer reserves the right to order additional non-destructive examination or reexamination of any and all welds found or suspected of not conforming to the applicable code requirements, Buyer's specifications, or the qualified welding procedure. The cost of all such additional testing should be for Supplier's account.
Buyer reserves the right to order additional nondestructive testing and for same to be performed by another ASNT qualified inspector or laboratory if the quality of tests or methods of testing are deemed unsatisfactory as not in compliance with the applicable codes and/or Buyer specifications. All such additional testing should be for Supplier's account.
Supplier should inspect all completed welds for cleanliness prior to nondestructive examination.
If Buyer judges a welder's or welding operator's welding to be unsatisfactory, Supplier should remove that person from the works. All such welding deemed unsatisfactory should be removed or repaired as directed by Buyer. The welder or welding operator may be reassigned only after additional training, the completion of satisfactory qualification tests, and with the approval of Buyer.
Supplier should notify Buyer ten (10) days before the date of load out for delivery. Buyer reserves the right to conduct an inspection for cleanliness and for compliance with delivery requirements. Vessels, piping, components, and containers opened for inspection should be promptly closed or otherwise protected after acceptance.
The dimensions of all components, tie-in points for others, and overall package dimensions should be checked for compliance with approved drawing dimensions and specifications.
The adequacy of equipment supports, shipping supports, and support of other appurtenances should be subject to Buyer inspection, as specified.
All instrument, pneumatic, and electrical systems should be inspected for system integrity and compliance with Buyer specifications.
Identification and tagging requirements for the equipment and all components should be verified in accordance with all Buyer requirements.
Where supplied, all lubrication should be checked to verify the type of lubrication and the fill level.
Protective coatings and other equipment protection requirements should be inspected for compliance with Buyer's specifications.
All data and documentation required by Buyer should be inspected for compliance with Buyer's specifications and other Contract Documents.
Thermal insulation should be inspected for compliance with Buyer's specifications.
All systems, fabrication, and equipment should be inspected for safety requirements and for all requirements of governmental approval bodies.
The delivery requirements for all items, equipment, and fabricated systems should be verified.
The settings of all valves, controllers, recorders, switches, etc., should be checked for correct start-up positions.
Any and all items to be shipped loose, including spare parts, should be inspected for compliance with Buyer requirements.
Device linkages, drives, pens, indexes, and other action devices should be inspected for integrity.
Buyer reserves the right to condemn any and all material, work, or equipment not conforming with Buyer's specified and contracted requirements.