Instrument Arrangement Design & Drawing Checklist

The following Instrument Arrangement Design & Drawing Checklist should be used as a reference when producing instrument arrangement drawings. The checklist can be printed and should be rev...


Solubility of inert gasses in water

Solubility charts of following inert gasses in Water at Atmospheric Pressure (101.3kPa) are shown below: Gas Name...


Engineering Work Package for Modification of Fractionation / Distillation Column

Summary Recommendation to identify modifications and related work associated with Fractionation/Distillation Column or Tower at a refinery. The work should be performed during the refinery ...


Heating and cooling coil valve test procedures to detect leaks for air handlers and fan coil terminal units

To determine whether there is a leakage in the air handlers, fan coil and terminal units, leak-by test methods in this document can assist in verifying proper system performance in both new an...


Automatic Isolation Valves Test Procedures

The methods described below apply to valves designed to isolate equipment, such as chillers, boilers, and cooling towers, from the rest of the plant when they are not in use. Generally, tests ...


Valve Leak-By Test Procedures

Overview This testing guidance is designed to aid in developing test procedures for a specific project by describing the steps involved in testing. The guidance should be adapted as necessary...


Economics of Grooved Piping Systems

An economic evaluation shall be performed prior to selecting a piping system.  If it is found that corrosion conditions require the use of an internally plastic-coated steel pipe, then a finan...


Scope of Work template

1.0    GENERAL General Description of facilities Type of project-expansion in kind, scale-up of new or existing process, development and  ream-out Primary and secondary objectives - minimu...


Gasket Selection Criteria

Compatibility with Fluid The gasket should obviously not be affected by fluid being sealed over the whole range of operating conditions. If any doubt exists, then the gasket manufacturer sh...


Manufacturing processes of expandable Polystyrene

Process Description The BP/Lummus styrene polymerization technology for the manufacture of regular and flame-retardant grades of Expandable Polystyrene (EPS) is a one-step batch suspension ...


Manufacturing processes of high impact Polystyrene

The production of general purpose polystyrenes (GPPS) and high impact polystyrenes (HIPS) is essentially the same with the exception of the initial, rubber-dissolution step for HIPS. The foll...


Piping and Vessels Preparation for Commissioning - Part 6

Continue of Part 5 - Inert Gas Purging 6. Sub-sea Piping and Vessels Preparations  The Piping and Vessels Preparations detailed in this document are also applicable to sub-sea installati...


Piping and Vessels Preparation for Commissioning - Part 5

Continue of Part 4 - Chemicals Loading of Vessels 5. Inert gas purging  5.1 General Inert gas purging is most frequently required to remove air from petroleum processing equipment in ...


Piping and Vessels Preparation for Commissioning - Part 4

Continue of Part 3 -  Dry-out 4. Chemicals loading of vessels 4.1 General This specification addresses the loading of process vessels with Raschig/Pall Rings-type packings, molecular ...


Piping and Vessels Preparation for Commissioning - Part 3

Part 2 - Leak Test 3. Dry-out 3.1 General At the end of construction, and following commissioning tasks such as water flushing, water should always be present in...


Piping and Vessels Preparation for Commissioning - Part 2

Part 1 - Introduction 2. Leak tests 2.1 General In no case are leak tests to be confused with pressure tests/hydrotest; the latter are carried out on spools duri...


Piping and Vessels Preparation for Commissioning - Part 1

1. Introduction Before undertaking introducing the feed into a facility, a number of specific process operations must be carried out on the Piping and Vessels. These operations, the prepara...


Types of Flanges and Facings and Its Uses

Weld-Neck Flange The Weld-Neck flange is butt-welded to the pipe. Weld-Neck flanges are typically used on extreme duties such as high pressures and/or hazardous fluids. The butt weld may ...


Recommendation on Emergency Shutdown Requirements (ESD) for Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit (MODU)

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Purpose This article is to provide the Emergency Shutdown Requirements (ESD) requirements for each subsea center in a particular field when the Mobile Offshore Drilling U...


Materials for Carbon Steel Pressure Vessels Subject to Sulfide Stress Cracking

Vessels in sour service should meet the requirements of NACE MR-01-75 as well as the additional requirements of this specification. 1. Shell and Heads Shell and head material for vessels...


Ionization constant of normal water (H2O) and heavy water (D2O)

Following table provides the ionization constant in molality terms for H 2 O and D 2 O at temperatures from 0 to 100°C at the saturated vapor pressure. The quantity tabulated is –log K W , wher...


Frequencies of full leaks for process equipment

This article provided the rigorously compiled hydrocarbon release database (HCRD) data set developed by the U.K. Health and Safety Executive (HSE) in cooperation with the U.K. North Sea oil an...


Allowable Stresses for Cast Tubesheet and Tube Support Materials

Following table details the allowable stresses for Cast Tube sheet and Tube support Materials. Material Tem...


Allowable Stresses for Wrought Tubesheet and Tube Support Materials

Material Temperature (1) Dead Load Stress psi(3) ...


Pig Launcher and Receiver System for Offshore Facilities

The FPSO should provide pig launcher/receiver facilities for the gas export pipeline and all production/test fluid transfer lines (FTLs) connected to the tension leg wellhead platform (TLWP). ...


Material Selection and Corrosion Control for Offshore Platform and FPSO

Detailed corrosion prediction evaluations including consideration for CO 2 should be performed to establish a materials selection and corrosion control report for all process and utility syst...


Working on Joints and Seals While Equipment is Energized

The purpose of this document is to provide guidance on the minimum necessary for working on joints, seals, etc. while the equipment is under pressure. As part of the normal maintenance functi...


Drilling Riser Tensioner allowable wellhead offset positions of the platform

The Drilling Riser Tensioner (DRT) is an active hydro-pneumatic type tensioner system that allows relative movement between the drilling riser and the Dry Tree Unit (DTU) and maintaining adequ...


Manufacturing of induction pipe bending

This document outlines the minimum requirements for manufacturing of induction pipe bending according to ASME B31.8, ASME 16.49 and ISO 15590-1. Induction Bending is formed by passing pipe th...


Piping and Instrument Diagram-P&ID Training

To improve understanding of pipe and valves to help operating the plant better and safer. Pipe Codes Provide comprehensive information for specific piping systems including: Design Condi...


PDMS Checklist

The following checklist shows instrumentation items that should be checked in the PDMS model. There are several types of checks that need to be made. Datum points assigned by the Designer V...


Consideration in selecting fused switches in a MCC

This article provides recommendations on fused switches in a MCC for short circuit protection of motor and feeder branch circuits. The Electrical Engineer selecting the appropriate device sho...


Minimalization Principle of Inherently Safer Design

To minimize is to reduce the quantity of material or energy contained in a manufacturing, process or plant. We often think of process minimization as resulting from the application of innovati...


Nitrogen Safety

This document provides recommendations and guidance for safely managing the use of nitrogen gas. The intent is to focus personnel actions so they are aligned with the clear understanding that ...


Advantages and Disadvantages of Fused Switches

Fused Disconnects Advantages Disad...


Simplification Principle of Inherently Safer Design

Simplification means designing to eliminate unnecessary complexity, reducing the opportunities for error and mis-operation. A simpler plant is generally safer and more cost effective than a co...


Common requirements for gas lift and injection systems on FPSO and TLWP

This will provide a quick understanding of general requirements typically found on Floating Production Storage and Offloading (FPSO) and Tension Leg Wellhead Platform (TLWP) concerning gas lif...


Gas Compression, Dehydration, Injection Flowline De-Watering and Sweetening Systems

General summary of Gas Compression, Dehydration, Injection Flowline De-Watering and Sweetening Systems typically found on Floating Production Storage and Offloading (FPSO). Gas Compression a...


Common causes of distillation column malfunctions

This article reviews the common causes of column malfunctions. It then looks at the basic troubleshooting tools: the systematic strategy for troubleshooting distillation problems and the dos a...


Engineering Tensile Stress-Strain Diagrams

The engineering tensile stress-strain curve is obtained by static loading of a standard specimen, that is, by applying the load slowly enough that all parts of the spe...


Vented Pipe Seal Plugs Installation and Recommended Hazard Checklist

This document recommends specific suggestions to be followed when using a vented pipe seal plug. This includes plug vendors, steps for installation of the plugs, and a suggested checklist to b...


Reflux and Intermediate Feed Inlets for Tray Columns

This document examines common practices of introducing reflux and intermediate feed into tray columns, outlines the preferred practices, highlights the consequences of poor practices, and supp...