Trouble shooting cathodic protection systems: Magnesium anode system

The basic technique is the same as " trouble shooting cathodic protection systems: rectifier-ground bed "; more measurements are required, because of the multiplicity of drain points...


Trouble shooting cathodic protection systems: Rectifier-ground bed

When the monitor, or a pipe-to-soil potential survey, indicates inadequacy of protection, the first place to look is at the protective unit. The current output of the rectifier should be check...


Types of manual valves and their application

Each valve type has various design details that differ based on manufacturer. The following provides a brief description on types and uses of manual valves in the industry. Ball Valve  is a ...


Reflux and Intermediate Feed Distribution and Liquid Redistribution in Packed Towers

The main consideration for introducing reflux or intermediate feed into a packed tower is adequately distributing the incoming stream to the packing. Unlike most tray columns, packed towers ar...


Types of Liquid Distributors in Packed Towers

Any liquid distributor gives some mal-distribution, because for practical reasons, liquid can only be divided into a limited number of streams. From these point sources the liquid spreads. The main ...


Perforated-Pipe Distributors in Packed Towers

Perforated-pipe distributors are normally of the ladder type (spider pipe) or the perforated-ring type. Perforations are located on the underside of the pipes. The ladder type is usually easie...


Spray Distributors in Packed Towers

Spray distributors are pipe headers with spray nozzles fitted on the underside of the pipes. They are most popular in heat transfer and scrubbing services and are infrequently used in fraction...


Guidelines for introducing liquid into parting boxes and distributor pan

Guidelines for introducing liquid into parting boxes and distributor pan. In most small columns (<3 to 4 ft in diameter), the inlet pipe directly feeds the distributor pan (or trough). In ...


Orifice Steam Traps

Orifice Steam Traps are thermostatic steam traps actuated by temperature sensitive devices, responding to changes in condensate temperature. Thermostatic steam traps respond to changes in...


Liquid or Solid Expansion Steam Traps (Wax Capsule Steam Trap)

Liquid or Solid Expansion Steam Traps (Wax Capsule Steam Trap) are thermostatic steam traps actuated by temperature sensitive devices, responding to changes in condensate temperature. Therm...


Bellows Steam Traps

Bellows Steam Traps are thermostatic steam traps actuated by temperature sensitive devices, responding to changes in condensate temperature. Thermostatic steam traps respond to changes in...


Bimetallic Steam Traps

Bimetallic Steam Traps are thermostatic steam traps actuated by temperature sensitive devices, responding to changes in condensate temperature. Thermostatic steam traps respond to changes...


Open Bucket Steam Traps

Open Bucket Steam Traps are mechanical steam traps actuated by a float responding to changes in condensate level. Mechanical steam traps are density detectors and therefore also have diff...


Inverted Bucket Steam Traps

Inverted Bucket Steam Traps are mechanical steam traps actuated by a float responding to changes in condensate level. Mechanical steam traps are density detectors and therefore also have ...


Closed Float Steam Traps

Closed Float Steam Traps are mechanical steam traps actuated by a float responding to changes in condensate level. Mechanical steam traps are density detectors and therefore also have dif...