High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) effects on pipelines

A pipeline collects, conducts and discharges electric current of high voltage direct current (HVDC) origin as a result of the electric field established by the DC current transmitted through...


Design philosophy for the flare, vent, relief, and blowdown systems

The purpose of this document is to describe the design philosophy for the flare, vent, relief, and blowdown systems. This philosophy helps to establish the design basis for each of these syste...


Mechanical System Isolation for offshore facilities

This document suggests the minimum requirements for the selection and installation of mechanical isolation devices such as isolation valves, spades, spectacle blinds, removable spool pieces, d...


Passive Fire Protection for Offshore Facilities

Passive Fire Protection focuses on the protection of structures in the process areas and outlines the general requirements for passive fire protection and active fire protection of structu...


Active Fire Protection for Offshore Facilities

The term “Fire Protection” as used herein includes active and passive fire protection . This section, Active Fire Protection outlines the intended use of active (water and/or foam) systems...


Determining current requirements for coated lines including when pipe-to-soil potential values are estimated

Determining current requirements for coated lines including when pipe-to-soil potential values are estimated To determining current requirements for coated lines: Start survey along the li...


Estimate liquid flow rate from a pipe given horizontal and vertical discharged dimensions

A quick and surprisingly accurate method of determining liquid discharge from an open ended horizontal pipe makes use of the formula: GPM = (2.56 * X * d 2 ) / Y 1/2 Where: GPM = gallons ...


Portable Utility Hoses

Portable Utility Hoses used in the energy industry to transfer air, water, steam, condensate, and nitrogen are often subject to heavy usage. If hoses are not properly maintained, safety incide...


Heat Tracing lessons learned

Handling of energized tracers involves electrical and thermal hazards While performing mechanical maintenance, a contractor received an electric shock while handling an energized self-limit...


Common gas industry terminology

Associated Gas — Associated Gas is found in reservoir where gas is dissolved in crude oil (solution gas) and in some cases also in contact with underlying gas-saturated crude (gas-cap gas). ...


Calculate leakage from gas line using pressure drop method

To calculate the leakage in MMcf (Million Cubic Feet) per year at a base pressure of 14.4 psia and a temperature of 60°F, take as a basis a one mile section of gas line under one hour test. U...


Calculate pipe size requirements for increasing throughput volumes of natural gas

Reflects the capacity to pipe size relationship when L (length), P1 (inlet pressure) and P2 (outlet pressure) are constant.


Trouble shooting cathodic protection systems: Magnesium anode system

The basic technique is the same as " trouble shooting cathodic protection systems: rectifier-ground bed "; more measurements are required, because of the multiplicity of drain points...


Trouble shooting cathodic protection systems: Rectifier-ground bed

When the monitor, or a pipe-to-soil potential survey, indicates inadequacy of protection, the first place to look is at the protective unit. The current output of the rectifier should be check...


Types of manual valves and their application

Each valve type has various design details that differ based on manufacturer. The following provides a brief description on types and uses of manual valves in the industry. Ball Valve  is a ...