Process Overview of Gasoline Treater

Gasoline treating is a vital part of the modernized refinery operation. The gasoline treater includes treating facilities for Light Straight Run (LSR) Naphtha along with Potassium Cresylate tr...


Process Overview of Steam Methane Reforming (SMR) in Hydrogen Plant

Refinery's unit that produces hydrogen for use as a feed stock (natural gas, refinery offgas, liquefied petroleum gas or naphtha) in other processing units in the facility. Gaseous hydroc...


Fischer-Tropsch gasification system to produce syngas from green waste

Case Study: A renewable energy plant converting 1000 TPD (dry) urban green waste can generate 600 BPD of Fischer-Tropsch fuels and 16.5 MW of export electricity to yield 466 bbl/day of "...


Feed Drying & Conditioning System for Green Waste

The heating media used in the drying and conditioning of green waste is flue gas from the fluid bed combustor, supplemented by 400# steam. The dryer equipment includes an Selective Catalytic R...


Fischer-Tropsch process to produce syngas from green waste

Case Study: A renewable energy plant converting 1000 TPD (dry) urban green waste can generate 600 BPD of Fischer-Tropsch fuels and 16.5 MW of export electricity to yield 466 bbl/day of "...


High Purity Hydrogen produced by Fischer-Tropsch process

Fischer-Tropsch 's high purity hydrogen required for the Unionfining Unit and Unicracking Unit is supplied by a Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) system. The hydrogen requirement is met ...


Renewable Energy produced by Fischer-Tropsch process product upgrading unit

Light Fischer-Tropsch Liquid (LFTL) and Wax Hydrocarbon are processed in the Product Upgrading Unit. Product upgrading includes a Unionfining Process Unit and a Unicracking Process Unit. Unio...


Renewable Energy produced by Fischer-Tropsch process power generation

Electricity produced by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process are generated by generators. Key components of the power generation of the renewable energy consist of a boiler, gas turbine generator, H...


Process Overview of Fluid Catalytic Cracker (FCC) Hydrotreater

Oct. 21, 2020

The main objective of the Hydrotreater is to achieve 78% weight removal of organic nitrogen compounds in the gas oil feed stock. In addition to nitrogen removal, the Hydrotreater removes appro...


Required time to get a shut-in test on gas transmission lines & pressure loss for new gas lines

Calculate the required time to get a shut-in test on gas transmission lines, and approximate a maximum acceptable pressure loss for new gas lines These two rules may prove helpful for air or ...


Process Overview of Catalytic Hydrosulfurization (CHD)

Oct. 12, 2020

Catalytic Hydrosulfurization is used to improve the quality of light distillates by removing sulfur compounds. The feed stock contains sour distillates from the crude tower. The feed is vapori...


Process Overview of Saturate Gas Plant (SGP)

The purpose of gas processing is to remove the heavier hydrocarbons from process gases, to stabilize light naphtha by removing the gaseous hydrocarbons from it, and then to separate the refine...


Polyethylene (PE) Material Properties

Polyethylene (PE) is the most commonly applied liner material and one of the most widely produced plastics in the world (tens of millions of tons are produced worldwide each year). PE liners s...


Calculate the amount of gas contained in a given pipeline section

The approximate amount of gas (cubic feet of gas) in standard conditions in 1000 feet of pipeline can be calculated using the following formula. Amount of Gas (ft 3 ) = d 2 * P * 0.372 Whe...


Properties of Water in the range 0 - 100 °C

Table below summarizes the available values of the density, specific heat capacity at constant pressure ( Cp ), vapor pressure, viscosity, thermal conductivity, dielectric constant, and surfac...


High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) effects on pipelines

A pipeline collects, conducts and discharges electric current of high voltage direct current (HVDC) origin as a result of the electric field established by the DC current transmitted through...


Design philosophy for the flare, vent, relief, and blowdown systems

The purpose of this document is to describe the design philosophy for the flare, vent, relief, and blowdown systems. This philosophy helps to establish the design basis for each of these syste...


Mechanical System Isolation for offshore facilities

This document suggests the minimum requirements for the selection and installation of mechanical isolation devices such as isolation valves, spades, spectacle blinds, removable spool pieces, d...


Passive Fire Protection for Offshore Facilities

Passive Fire Protection focuses on the protection of structures in the process areas and outlines the general requirements for passive fire protection and active fire protection of structu...


Active Fire Protection for Offshore Facilities

The term “Fire Protection” as used herein includes active and passive fire protection . This section, Active Fire Protection outlines the intended use of active (water and/or foam) systems...


Determining current requirements for coated lines including when pipe-to-soil potential values are estimated

Determining current requirements for coated lines including when pipe-to-soil potential values are estimated To determining current requirements for coated lines: Start survey along the li...


Estimate liquid flow rate from a pipe given horizontal and vertical discharged dimensions

A quick and surprisingly accurate method of determining liquid discharge from an open ended horizontal pipe makes use of the formula: GPM = (2.56 * X * d 2 ) / Y 1/2 Where: GPM = gallons ...


Portable Utility Hoses

Portable Utility Hoses used in the energy industry to transfer air, water, steam, condensate, and nitrogen are often subject to heavy usage. If hoses are not properly maintained, safety incide...


Heat Tracing lessons learned

Handling of energized tracers involves electrical and thermal hazards While performing mechanical maintenance, a contractor received an electric shock while handling an energized self-limit...


Common gas industry terminology

Associated Gas — Associated Gas is found in reservoir where gas is dissolved in crude oil (solution gas) and in some cases also in contact with underlying gas-saturated crude (gas-cap gas). ...


Calculate leakage from gas line using pressure drop method

To calculate the leakage in MMcf (Million Cubic Feet) per year at a base pressure of 14.4 psia and a temperature of 60°F, take as a basis a one mile section of gas line under one hour test. U...


Calculate pipe size requirements for increasing throughput volumes of natural gas

Reflects the capacity to pipe size relationship when L (length), P1 (inlet pressure) and P2 (outlet pressure) are constant.


Trouble shooting cathodic protection systems: Magnesium anode system

The basic technique is the same as " trouble shooting cathodic protection systems: rectifier-ground bed "; more measurements are required, because of the multiplicity of drain points...


Trouble shooting cathodic protection systems: Rectifier-ground bed

When the monitor, or a pipe-to-soil potential survey, indicates inadequacy of protection, the first place to look is at the protective unit. The current output of the rectifier should be check...


Types of manual valves and their application

March 23, 2020 • Tadd Pham

Each valve type has various design details that differ based on manufacturer. The following provides a brief description on types and uses of manual valves in the industry. Ball Valve  ...


Reflux and Intermediate Feed Distribution and Liquid Redistribution in Packed Towers

The main consideration for introducing reflux or intermediate feed into a packed tower is adequately distributing the incoming stream to the packing. Unlike most tray columns, packed towers ar...


Types of Liquid Distributors in Packed Towers

Any liquid distributor gives some mal-distribution, because for practical reasons, liquid can only be divided into a limited number of streams. From these point sources the liquid spreads. The main ...


Perforated-Pipe Distributors in Packed Towers

Perforated-pipe distributors are normally of the ladder type (spider pipe) or the perforated-ring type. Perforations are located on the underside of the pipes. The ladder type is usually easie...


Spray Distributors in Packed Towers

Spray distributors are pipe headers with spray nozzles fitted on the underside of the pipes. They are most popular in heat transfer and scrubbing services and are infrequently used in fraction...


Guidelines for introducing liquid into parting boxes and distributor pan

Jan. 22, 2020

Guidelines for introducing liquid into parting boxes and distributor pan. In most small columns (<3 to 4 ft in diameter), the inlet pipe directly feeds the distributor pan (or trough). In ...


Orifice Steam Traps

Orifice Steam Traps are thermostatic steam traps actuated by temperature sensitive devices, responding to changes in condensate temperature. Thermostatic steam traps respond to changes in...


Liquid or Solid Expansion Steam Traps (Wax Capsule Steam Trap)

Liquid or Solid Expansion Steam Traps (Wax Capsule Steam Trap) are thermostatic steam traps actuated by temperature sensitive devices, responding to changes in condensate temperature. Therm...


Bellows Steam Traps

Bellows Steam Traps are thermostatic steam traps actuated by temperature sensitive devices, responding to changes in condensate temperature. Thermostatic steam traps respond to changes in...


Bimetallic Steam Traps

Bimetallic Steam Traps are thermostatic steam traps actuated by temperature sensitive devices, responding to changes in condensate temperature. Thermostatic steam traps respond to changes...


Open Bucket Steam Traps

Open Bucket Steam Traps are mechanical steam traps actuated by a float responding to changes in condensate level. Mechanical steam traps are density detectors and therefore also have diff...


Inverted Bucket Steam Traps

Inverted Bucket Steam Traps are mechanical steam traps actuated by a float responding to changes in condensate level. Mechanical steam traps are density detectors and therefore also have ...


Closed Float Steam Traps

Closed Float Steam Traps are mechanical steam traps actuated by a float responding to changes in condensate level. Mechanical steam traps are density detectors and therefore also have dif...


Lever Steam Traps

Lever steam traps are in the thermodynamic trap category that are actuated by the principles of thermodynamics and fluid dynamics. Thermodynamic steam traps are phase detectors in that th...


Piston Steam Traps

Piston steam traps are in the thermodynamic trap category that are actuated by the principles of thermodynamics and fluid dynamics. Thermodynamic steam traps are phase detectors in that t...


Disc Steam Traps

Disc steam traps are in the thermodynamic trap category that are actuated by the principles of thermodynamics and fluid dynamics. Thermodynamic steam traps are phase detectors in that the...


Pressure Vessels engineering and design

This specification discusses pressure vessel engineering and design in compliance with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1. This specification in combination wi...


Pressure Vessel fabrication

This specification discusses pressure vessels' fabrication process and technique in compliance with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1. This specification...


Pressure Vessel Inspection, Testing, Painting, Marking, Preparation for Shipping and Storage

This specification discusses pressure vessels' Inspection, Testing, Painting, Marking, Preparation for Shipping and Storage in compliance with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Se...


Materials Application and Limitation of using gate, globe, ball, and check valves

Nodular Iron, Cast Iron, Aluminum, and Copper Based Alloy Valves Nodular (ductile) iron valves, either austenitic or ferritic, should only be used within the limits of ASME B31.3 provided th...


Chloride stress corrosion cracking [CSCC] in stainless steel

Prevention of Chloride stress corrosion cracking [CSCC] in austenitic stainless steel material for closed loop water/glycol mixture are as follows: Elimination of oxygen is an effective me...


Vapor Liquid Phase equilibrium [VLE] data Source

Some important sources for phase equilibrium data are: Dechema Chemistry Data Series: several volumes on VLE, LLE, gas solubility, heat of mixing, azeotropes of many binary mixtures as well...


Lubricator Valve functionality in a Subsea Test Tree and Landing String

• ES Staff

The lubricator valve for the subsea test tree is a surface-operated hydraulic valve that is run from one or two joints below the flow­head. It enables the top of the string to be used as a lub...


Application and Limitation of using gate, globe, and check valves

• ES Staff

Single or double valves at a classification change should be suitable for the more severe line classification on either side of the valve(s) location. At a line classification break, a single ...


Recommended design for a weighted spray in a column tower

• ES_Staff

A weighted spray was developed to form a unique spray pattern that holds very constant velocity and consistent spray pattern regardless of flow, therefore, overcoming turndown problems in othe...


Overview of Petroleum Crude Unit Process

• ES Staff

The crude unit physically separates the crude oil charge into fractions of specific boiling ranges by distillation and steam stripping. These fractions undergo further processing before being ...


Stress Analysis of Piping Critical Lines

• ES Staff

When starting to study Piping Stress Analysis, each piping line should be explored based on critical features such as fluid service, pipe size, pipe material, design parameters and loading con...


Flowline - Pipeline Thermal Expansion Calculation

SUMMARY Flowline/Pipeline Thermal/Pressure Expansion can be developed for submarine pipelines (both single pipe and Pipe-in-pipe) expansion assessments due to pressure and temperature, ref...


Application of Thermal Sprayed Aluminum to Subsea Structures

1.0 Scope This specification defines the minimum requirements for the surface preparation, application and inspection of thermal sprayed aluminum (TSA) coatings to subsea structures (e.g., ...


How to evaluate the Glycol sample test result?

Interpretation of Test Results Sample Color Pure glycol is water clear. With use, however, the glycol solution can become discolored. Generally this discoloration can be attributed to one o...


Dielectric Constant or relative permittivity of Gases

Table below gives the relative permittivity ε or the dielectric constant of some common gases at a temperature of 68°F (or 20 °C) and pressure of one atmosphere. Values of the permanent dipole momen...


Acid Gas Treatment

Acid gas treating, also known as gas sweetening and sour gas treating, refers to a group of processes that use various aqueous solvents such as Amines, Hot Potassium Carbonate, Sodium Hydroxid...


Subsea Controls Umbilical Distribution Configuration

PURPOSE As part of any Pre-FEED or FEED studies, the configuration of the subsea distribution equipment should be defined in the final specification for the controls equipment.  In order to...


What is the criterion of selecting a column with different diameters for top and bottom sections?

If the difference in the calculated diameter between the top and bottom section exceeds 20 percent, different diameters for the top and bottom sections are likely to be economical. Reference:...


Procedures for Back Loading, Transportation and Disposal of the Offshore Structure

All materials removed from the sites/facilities should be required to be loaded on a material barge for transportation to an onshore facility. Grillage beam mats should be required to support...


Pipe Flange Surface Finish

Purpose To create a seal, gasket has to fill up the voids in the flange surface present because of surface finish and any flange rotation (or relative distortion) between the two surfaces. T...


Isolation, Removal, Abandoned In Place Process Equipment

Safety considerations and requirements for equipment retired from service but not removed and left abandoned in place. Equipment that is being retired from service must be isolated from opera...


Equipment and Guidelines Used for the Detection of Leaks

This article describes the equipment and guidelines used for the detection of leaks. Air or Nitrogen can be used as the detection medium. This document should be used when new piping/equipment...


Confined Space Training Refresher/Overview

This confined space training aims to help refreshing memory and provides guidance to protect personnel from hazards of confined space entry. It outlines a systematic approach to identifying, e...


Properties of Glycols

Article details the physical properties of mono ethylene glycol (MEG), di-ethylene glycol (DEG), tri-ethylene glycol (TEG), and tetra-ethylene glycol (TREG); along with the Toxicity and Flamma...


Required Documentation for Vessel Construction, Alteration and Repair

All work should be performed per the requirements of the latest version of  ASME Section VIII Div. 1, API-510 and any/all applicable “your client” standards/specifications. Note: all Section...


Substitution Principle of Inherently Safer Design

Substitution means the replacement of a hazardous material or process with an alternative which reduces or eliminates the hazard. Process engineers/designers, operations managers, and plant te...


Moderation Principle of Inherently Safer Design

Moderation means using materials under less hazardous conditions, also called attenuation. Moderation of conditions can be accomplished by strategies which are either physical (lower temperatu...


Material Requirements for Carbon Steel Pressure Vessels

Material Requirements for Carbon Steel Pressure Vessel and its connecting nozzle, piping, internals, external attachments/supports and gauge valves. COMPONENT ...


Pressure Vessels with Thickness Greater than 1.5 inches Material, Design and Specifications

1. Scope Pressure vessels with wall thickness greater than 1.5" (38 mm) should comply with the additional requirements specified herein, in addition to “ Specification - Pressure Vessels...


Requirements for Clad Pressure Vessels

1. Scope Clad Pressure vessels should comply with the additional requirements specified herein, in addition to “ Specification - Pressure Vessels ”, for the design and fabrication. 2. Des...


Fired Heater Specification, Design, Fabrication, and Inspection

The following specification defines the minimum requirements for design, fabrication, and inspection of fired process heaters (hereinafter referred to as heaters) given in API STD 560, Fired H...


Block Valve Packing Systems

1.0 Scope This specification defines the minimum requirements for design, materials, packing arrangements, and installation and testing requirements for rising-stem and quarter-turn valve s...


Pressure Vessel Specification

This pressure vessel specification discusses general pressure vessel requirements including engineering design , fabrication , inspection, testing, painting, identification and marking, pre...


Glycol Contactor Internals

1. Purpose This document defines the minimum requirements for the design, fabrication, and supply of sieve trays and a demister for Glycol Contactor. 2. Scope of Supply Supplier’s scope inc...


Steel Line Pipe for Gas and Liquid Pipelines for Offshore Applications

1.0 Scope This Specification defines the requirements for manufacturing, testing, inspecting, marking, and shipping of steel line pipe for gas and liquid pipelines for offshore applications...


Requirements for Offshore Welded Pipe

Offshore welded pipes should meet the requirements of the main body of the specification " Steel Line Pipe for Gas and Liquid Pipelines for Offshore Applications " in addition to thi...


Requirements for Offshore Pipelines in Gas and Sour Services

Offshore Pipelines in Gas and Sour Services should meet the requirements of the main body of the specification " Steel Line Pipe for Gas and Liquid Pipelines for Offshore Applications &qu...


Fiberglass Piping Systems for HIGH Pressure for Use in Petroleum Related Applications

1.0 Scope This specification defines the minimum requirements for fiberglass pipe and fittings fabricated by the filament winding, centrifugal casting, and compression/contact molding techn...


Fiberglass Piping Systems for LOW Pressure for Use in Petroleum Related Applications

1.0 Scope This specification defines the minimum requirements for fiberglass pipe and fittings fabricated by the filament winding, centrifugal casting, and compression/contact molding techn...


Orifice Distributors in Packed Towers

Orifice distributors are usually of the pan type or of the tunnel type. The former type is best suited for small-diameter columns (<4 ft), while the latter is used in larger-diameter column...


Pipe roughness at turbulent flow

Pipe roughness related to pipe material at complete turbulent flow, as per Crane appendix A-23. Piping Material ...


Installation Workover Control System (IWOCS) for Conventional Guideline Subsea Completion Equipment

1.0 Scope This specification defines the minimum requirements to cover the procurement of an electro hydraulic installation and workover control system (IWOCS) that should be used to instal...


General Welding specification

1.0 Scope This specification defines Buyer's minimum requirements for shop and field welding and heat treatment of equipment and fabricated production systems. All works should confor...


Inspection and Testing specification

1.0 Scope This specification defines the minimum requirements for shop and field fabrication for non-destructive examination, inspection, pressure testing and operational testing of equipme...


Requirements for Marine System Pressure Vessels

1. Scope Marine System Pressure Vessels should comply with the additional requirements specified herein, in addition to “ Specification - Pressure Vessels ”, for the design and fabrication....


Instrument Diagrams Checklist

When checking an instrument diagram, the subject matter to be considered may be broken down into categories. The responsibility of the checker varies for each of these categories. Listed below...


Guidelines for packed tower liquid distributor design, selection, construction, and operation

General guidelines for packed tower liquid distributor design, selection, construction, and operation are presented. A liquid distributor (or redistributor) should be used in any locatio...


Requirements for Stainless Steel Pressure Vessels

1. Scope Stainless Steel Pressure Vessels should comply with additional requirements specified herein, in addition to “ Specification - Pressure Vessels ”. 2. Materials Stainless steel head...


Glass Reinforced Plastic Linings to Bottoms of Storage Tanks

1.0 Scope This specification defines the minimum requirements to cover the selection, design, application, and inspection of glass reinforced plastic (GRP) linings to the bottoms of storage...


Pig Receivers Specification

1. INTRODUCTION This specification defines the minimum requirements for the design, materials, fabrication, assembly, testing, painting, and inspection of the Pig Receivers that are to be ins...


Protective Coatings specification

1.0 Scope This specification defines the procedures and materials required for the surface preparation, coating application, inspection, and touch-up of the specified structure, process pip...


Plastic and Plastic-Lined Piping

1.0 Scope This specification defines the minimum requirements to cover the materials, design, fabrication, inspection and testing of plastic and plastic-lined piping.  It covers thermoplast...


Subsea Umbilical, Controls Testing and Pre-Commissioning Requirements

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Project Overview This document provides the requirements for testing and commissioning of the umbilicals and subsea production controls system. 1.2 Documentation The fo...


Equipment Piping Arrangement

1. General When real estate is scare and where piping and pipe supporting structures are routed close to equipment, piping should be arranged such that full access is provided for maintenan...