Polyethylene (PE) Material Properties

Polyethylene (PE) is the most commonly applied liner material and one of the most widely produced plastics in the world (tens of millions of tons are produced worldwide each year). PE liners s...


Calculate the amount of gas contained in a given pipeline section

The approximate amount of gas (cubic feet of gas) in standard conditions in 1000 feet of pipeline can be calculated using the following formula. Amount of Gas (ft 3 ) = d 2 * P * 0.372 Whe...


Properties of Water in the range 0 - 100 °C

Table below summarizes the available values of the density, specific heat capacity at constant pressure ( Cp ), vapor pressure, viscosity, thermal conductivity, dielectric constant, and surfac...


High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) effects on pipelines

A pipeline collects, conducts and discharges electric current of high voltage direct current (HVDC) origin as a result of the electric field established by the DC current transmitted through...


Design philosophy for the flare, vent, relief, and blowdown systems

The purpose of this document is to describe the design philosophy for the flare, vent, relief, and blowdown systems. This philosophy helps to establish the design basis for each of these syste...


Mechanical System Isolation for offshore facilities

This document suggests the minimum requirements for the selection and installation of mechanical isolation devices such as isolation valves, spades, spectacle blinds, removable spool pieces, d...


Passive Fire Protection for Offshore Facilities

Passive Fire Protection focuses on the protection of structures in the process areas and outlines the general requirements for passive fire protection and active fire protection of structu...


Active Fire Protection for Offshore Facilities

The term “Fire Protection” as used herein includes active and passive fire protection . This section, Active Fire Protection outlines the intended use of active (water and/or foam) systems...


Determining current requirements for coated lines including when pipe-to-soil potential values are estimated

Determining current requirements for coated lines including when pipe-to-soil potential values are estimated To determining current requirements for coated lines: Start survey along the li...


Estimate liquid flow rate from a pipe given horizontal and vertical discharged dimensions

A quick and surprisingly accurate method of determining liquid discharge from an open ended horizontal pipe makes use of the formula: GPM = (2.56 * X * d 2 ) / Y 1/2 Where: GPM = gallons ...


Portable Utility Hoses

Portable Utility Hoses used in the energy industry to transfer air, water, steam, condensate, and nitrogen are often subject to heavy usage. If hoses are not properly maintained, safety incide...


Heat Tracing lessons learned

Handling of energized tracers involves electrical and thermal hazards While performing mechanical maintenance, a contractor received an electric shock while handling an energized self-limit...


Common gas industry terminology

Associated Gas — Associated Gas is found in reservoir where gas is dissolved in crude oil (solution gas) and in some cases also in contact with underlying gas-saturated crude (gas-cap gas). ...


Calculate leakage from gas line using pressure drop method

To calculate the leakage in MMcf (Million Cubic Feet) per year at a base pressure of 14.4 psia and a temperature of 60°F, take as a basis a one mile section of gas line under one hour test. U...


Calculate pipe size requirements for increasing throughput volumes of natural gas

Reflects the capacity to pipe size relationship when L (length), P1 (inlet pressure) and P2 (outlet pressure) are constant.