This article discusses four different flushing and cleaning methods for process lines and vessels during pre-commissioning.
Preferred practices for Electrical Pipeline Heat Tracing recommendations based on industry experience for cost, quality and problem avoidance.
The use of multi-polar cables for connecting field devices is quite common and is accepted by the standard if in the safety analysis of a system the opening, short circuiting, and grounding of the cable are considered as probable situations and not counted as faults.
In the process instrumentation field, the most used methods of protection to reduce fire and/or explosion dangers are: Intrinsic Safety, Explosion Proof, Pressurization enclosures.
Discussion of Inherently Hazards Maintainability, Error Prevention, and Error Recovery.
This article discusses procedures for chemical cleaning of Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel piping.
Air cooled heat exchangers design good practices for temperature selection, Air re-circulation, Leaks, Approach temperature, Mean-temperature-difference (MTD) correction factor, Maintenance Cost, and Operating Costs.
The Electric Trace Heating System uses an array of insulated electric heating elements in thermal contact with the pipeline or flowline being heated. The applied electrical power is dissipated as heat by Joule effect resistive heating. The system can be applied to either flexible pipe or rigid pipe-in-pipe. Trace heated …
Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers (PCHE) are diffusion-bonded type heat exchangers. These are highly compact, highly robust exchangers compare to the other popular heat exchangers such as shell and tube. They are now well established in the upstream, high pressure hydrocarbon processing, petrochemical and refining industries.
This article provides suggestions on the design and construction of steam inlet piping for condensing and non-condensing turbines, as well as exhaust piping for non-condensing turbines.