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Control valve maintenance and things to do to extend control valves life
Control valve maintenance and things to do to extend control valves life

Always follow the control valve manufacturer’s maintenance manuals. Typical maintenance topics are summarized here together with recommendation to extend the life of the control valves. Optimization of control valve assets …

How to control corrosion at compressor stations
How to control corrosion at compressor stations

Corrosion failures at compressor stations result from carelessness mostly on the part of the users or poor choices of material and/or configuration by the project.The following factors should be considered …

Definitions of MAWP, MAP, MOP, Design Pressure, Hydrotest Pressure, Burst Pressure, Working Pressure and more
Definitions of MAWP, MAP, MOP, Design Pressure, Hydrotest Pressure, Burst Pressure, Working Pressure and more

Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP) - maximum gauge pressure permissible at the top of the equipment in its operating position for a designated temperature (e.g. maximum pressure that the weakest …

Steam Traps selection and advantages vs. disadvantages of each type
Steam Traps selection and advantages vs. disadvantages of each type

March 2, 2020

There are many factors that affect steam generating system in the energy industry, and multiple pros and cons in selecting a right steam trap for your application, the following are advantages vs. disadvantages of each type of steam trap to …

What are corrosion coupons and corrosion probes and holders?
What are corrosion coupons and corrosion probes and holders?

Feb. 19, 2020

Corrosion coupons, probes, holders are corrosion-sensing devices that can detect the rate of corrosion in any process environment.Corrosion coupons are probably the oldest and simple and very effective method for corrosion and erosion studies that take place in a specific …

FPSO Inert Gas [Nitrogen] Description and Design Requirements
FPSO Inert Gas [Nitrogen] Description and Design Requirements

Feb. 18, 2020

The FPSO topside typically includes a nitrogen generation and distribution system. The system should be designed to provide sufficient nitrogen for blanketing and purging of the process system in connection with minor repair/maintenance work, blanketing of methanol tanks, continuous purging …

How to effectively use Adjusts and Recycle Operations?
How to effectively use Adjusts and Recycle Operations?

Feb. 17, 2020

What are the Adjust and recycle logical operations?Adjust and recycle logical operations are examples of iterative calculation routines. That is, these operations take an initial guess and run the calculation with that guess. The result is compared against a target …

Thermal Insulation Credit for Pressure Relief Valve Sizing Calculation
Thermal Insulation Credit for Pressure Relief Valve Sizing Calculation

Feb. 16, 2020

Credit factors for insulation in determining the minimum Pressure Relief valve sizes for fire exposure should be as per API RP 521 with following additional guidelines:Credit can be taken for the insulation systems on steel vessels and vessels constructed of …

Reducing the likelihood of highly toxic & hazard chemicals that has catastrophic consequences
Reducing the likelihood of highly toxic & hazard chemicals that has catastrophic consequences

Feb. 3, 2020

A look at quality assurance beyond existing Industry Standards and typical Quality Assurance Programs, regarding the installation and fabrication of construction materials in "highly toxic and hazard" chemical service.The "highly toxic and hazard" chemicals procedure includes a careful and thorough …

Factors affecting steam generating systems and facilities
Factors affecting steam generating systems and facilities

Jan. 25, 2020

The following are considerations associated with steam systems that have special significance for the steam trap user and designer alike. While these are common problems, their adverse effects can be minimized by good planning and equipment selection. To select an …

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Featured Articles


Heating and cooling coil valve test procedures to detect leaks for air handlers and fan coil terminal units
Heating and cooling coil valve test procedures to detect leaks for air handlers and fan coil terminal units

To determine whether there is a leakage in the air handlers, fan coil and terminal units, leak-by test methods in this document can assist in verifying proper system performance in …

Trouble shooting cathodic protection systems: Magnesium anode system
Trouble shooting cathodic protection systems: Magnesium anode system

The basic technique is the same as "trouble shooting cathodic protection systems: rectifier-ground bed"; more measurements are required, because of the multiplicity of drain points.First, the current output of stations …

Trouble shooting cathodic protection systems: Rectifier-ground bed
Trouble shooting cathodic protection systems: Rectifier-ground bed

When the monitor, or a pipe-to-soil potential survey, indicates inadequacy of protection, the first place to look is at the protective unit. The current output of the rectifier should be …

Types of manual valves and their application
Types of manual valves and their application

Each valve type has various design details that differ based on manufacturer. The following provides a brief description on types and uses of manual valves in the industry.Ball Valve is …

Reflux and Intermediate Feed Inlets for Tray Columns
Reflux and Intermediate Feed Inlets for Tray Columns

This document examines common practices of introducing reflux and intermediate feed into tray columns, outlines the preferred practices, highlights the consequences of poor practices, and supplies guidelines for troubleshooting and …

Piping and Vessels Preparation for Commissioning - Part 3
Piping and Vessels Preparation for Commissioning - Part 3

Part 2 - Leak Test 3. Dry-out3.1 GeneralAt the end of construction, and following commissioning tasks such as water flushing, water should always be present in petroleum processing equipment.Whenever this …

Reflux and Intermediate Feed Distribution and Liquid Redistribution in Packed Towers
Reflux and Intermediate Feed Distribution and Liquid Redistribution in Packed Towers

The main consideration for introducing reflux or intermediate feed into a packed tower is adequately distributing the incoming stream to the packing. Unlike most tray columns, packed towers are sensitive …

Perforated-Pipe Distributors in Packed Towers
Perforated-Pipe Distributors in Packed Towers

Perforated-pipe distributors are normally of the ladder type (spider pipe) or the perforated-ring type. Perforations are located on the underside of the pipes. The ladder type is usually easier to …

Types of Liquid Distributors in Packed Towers
Types of Liquid Distributors in Packed Towers

Any liquid distributor gives some mal-distribution, because for practical reasons, liquid can only be divided into a limited number of streams. From these point sources the liquid spreads. The main …