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What are corrosion coupons and corrosion probes and holders?
What are corrosion coupons and corrosion probes and holders?

Corrosion coupons, probes, holders are corrosion-sensing devices that can detect the rate of corrosion in any process environment.Corrosion coupons are probably the oldest and simple and very effective method for …

FPSO Inert Gas [Nitrogen] Description and Design Requirements
FPSO Inert Gas [Nitrogen] Description and Design Requirements

The FPSO topside typically includes a nitrogen generation and distribution system. The system should be designed to provide sufficient nitrogen for blanketing and purging of the process system in connection …

How to effectively use Adjusts and Recycle Operations?
How to effectively use Adjusts and Recycle Operations?

What are the Adjust and recycle logical operations?Adjust and recycle logical operations are examples of iterative calculation routines. That is, these operations take an initial guess and run the calculation …

Thermal Insulation Credit for Pressure Relief Valve Sizing Calculation
Thermal Insulation Credit for Pressure Relief Valve Sizing Calculation

Feb. 16, 2020

Credit factors for insulation in determining the minimum Pressure Relief valve sizes for fire exposure should be as per API RP 521 with following additional guidelines:Credit can be taken for the insulation systems on steel vessels and vessels constructed of …

Reducing the likelihood of highly toxic & hazard chemicals that has catastrophic consequences
Reducing the likelihood of highly toxic & hazard chemicals that has catastrophic consequences

Feb. 3, 2020

A look at quality assurance beyond existing Industry Standards and typical Quality Assurance Programs, regarding the installation and fabrication of construction materials in "highly toxic and hazard" chemical service.The "highly toxic and hazard" chemicals procedure includes a careful and thorough …

Factors affecting steam generating systems and facilities
Factors affecting steam generating systems and facilities

Jan. 25, 2020

The following are considerations associated with steam systems that have special significance for the steam trap user and designer alike. While these are common problems, their adverse effects can be minimized by good planning and equipment selection.Water HammerCondensate will always …

Racking, Stabbing, Switching of high energy electrical systems
Racking, Stabbing, Switching of high energy electrical systems

Jan. 18, 2020

High energy electrical systems have the potential to cause serious injury with shock and flash hazards and significant equipment damage. During racking, stabbing, and switching of high energy electrical systems, the potential hazards are greater than at other times. This …

Recommended sound pressure level for offshore facilities
Recommended sound pressure level for offshore facilities

Nov. 18, 2019

Recommended sound (noise) pressure control level for offshore facilities according to industry standards.FlaresDuring Normal Operation (no significant flaring), the maximum sound level of the flares should not exceed 85 dBA at grade level.During Emergency condition, Start-up or Shut-down, the maximum …

Unauthorized changes to alarm configuration should be checked as part of circuit maintenance
Unauthorized changes to alarm configuration should be checked as part of circuit maintenance

Nov. 6, 2019

This following case supports the need to provide a permanent record to document controller settings/configuration for programmable heating controllers in a manner that can be easily used. Lock-out of unauthorized changes needs to be assured, and configuration should be checked …

The need for ground leakage equipment protection and the need to have the controller switch
The need for ground leakage equipment protection and the need to have the controller switch

Oct. 25, 2019

This lesson learned reveals that the arcing between the bus and the metallic braid across the Fluoropolymer jacket was sustained for some period of time. The fault current was sufficient to generate temperatures well above the temperature limit of the …

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Featured Articles


Pressure Vessel fabrication
Pressure Vessel fabrication

This specification discusses pressure vessels' fabrication process and technique in compliance with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1.This specification in combination with general pressure vessel …

Required Documentation for Vessel Construction, Alteration and Repair
Required Documentation for Vessel Construction, Alteration and Repair

All work should be performed per the requirements of the latest version of ASME Section VIII Div. 1, API-510 and any/all applicable “your client” standards/specifications.Note: all Section VIII Div. 2 …

Pressure Vessels engineering and design
Pressure Vessels engineering and design

This specification discusses pressure vessel engineering and design in compliance with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1.This specification in combination with general pressure vessel requirements …

Pressure Vessel Inspection, Testing, Painting, Marking, Preparation for Shipping and Storage
Pressure Vessel Inspection, Testing, Painting, Marking, Preparation for Shipping and Storage

This specification discusses pressure vessels' Inspection, Testing, Painting, Marking, Preparation for Shipping and Storage in compliance with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1.This specification in …

Pressure Vessel Specification
Pressure Vessel Specification

This pressure vessel specification discusses general pressure vessel requirements including engineering design, fabrication, inspection, testing, painting, identification and marking, preparation for shipping and storage in compliance with the ASME Boiler …

Dielectric Constant or relative permittivity of Gases
Dielectric Constant or relative permittivity of Gases

Table below gives the relative permittivity ε or the dielectric constant of some common gases at a temperature of 68°F (or 20 °C) and pressure of one atmosphere. Values of …

Allowable Stresses for Wrought Tubesheet and Tube Support Materials
Allowable Stresses for Wrought Tubesheet and Tube Support Materials

Material Temperature (1) Dead Load Stresspsi(3) Dead Load Stress PlusFrictional Stress, psi(3) °F °C Carbon Steel (A285 Gr C) 800 427 12400 24800 Carbon Steel (Alloy A242 Type 1/COR-TEN A) …

Allowable Stresses for Cast Tubesheet and Tube Support Materials
Allowable Stresses for Cast Tubesheet and Tube Support Materials

Following table details the allowable stresses for Cast Tube sheet and Tube support Materials. Material Temperature (1) Dead Load Stresspsi (3) Dead Load Stress PlusFrictional Stress,psi (3) °F °C Cast …

Chloride stress corrosion cracking [CSCC] in stainless steel
Chloride stress corrosion cracking [CSCC] in stainless steel

Prevention of Chloride stress corrosion cracking [CSCC] in austenitic stainless steel material for closed loop water/glycol mixture are as follows:Elimination of oxygen is an effective measure to prevent CSCC in …