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Comparing costs of gas and many types of fuels
Comparing costs of gas and many types of fuels

Consideration of practical replacements for gas such as coal, heavy fuel oil, middle distillates, LPG and vice versa.Fuels considered most practical replacements for gas include coal, heavy fuel oils, middle …

Cause and effect of exceeding service ratings of heat tracing materials
Cause and effect of exceeding service ratings of heat tracing materials

The following lesson learned outlines an installation of pipeline heat tracing for a new process unit within an existing chemical/petrochemical facility. The system design consisted of self-limiting cables for process …

Natural gas flow meter measurement types
Natural gas flow meter measurement types

Gas flow meter is a mechanical device for automatically measuring quantities of gas. Some of the more popular than others depending on application and requirements. The most important types are:Diaphragm …

Control valve maintenance and things to do to extend control valves life
Control valve maintenance and things to do to extend control valves life

April 2, 2020

Always follow the control valve manufacturer’s maintenance manuals. Typical maintenance topics are summarized here together with recommendation to extend the life of the control valves. Optimization of control valve assets depends on an effective maintenance philosophy and program. Three of …

How to control corrosion at compressor stations
How to control corrosion at compressor stations

March 15, 2020

Corrosion failures at compressor stations result from carelessness mostly on the part of the users or poor choices of material and/or configuration by the project.The following factors should be considered when studying options for the project:Coat everything underground, except ground …

Definitions of MAWP, MAP, MOP, Design Pressure, Hydrotest Pressure, Burst Pressure, Working Pressure and more
Definitions of MAWP, MAP, MOP, Design Pressure, Hydrotest Pressure, Burst Pressure, Working Pressure and more

March 4, 2020

Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP) - maximum gauge pressure permissible at the top of the equipment in its operating position for a designated temperature (e.g. maximum pressure that the weakest component of the system can handle). Note: the maximum allowable …

Steam Traps selection and advantages vs. disadvantages of each type
Steam Traps selection and advantages vs. disadvantages of each type

March 2, 2020

There are many factors that affect steam generating system in the energy industry, and multiple pros and cons in selecting a right steam trap for your application, the following are advantages vs. disadvantages of each type of steam trap to …

What are corrosion coupons and corrosion probes and holders?
What are corrosion coupons and corrosion probes and holders?

Feb. 19, 2020

Corrosion coupons, probes, holders are corrosion-sensing devices that can detect the rate of corrosion in any process environment.Corrosion coupons are probably the oldest and simple and very effective method for corrosion and erosion studies that take place in a specific …

FPSO Inert Gas [Nitrogen] Description and Design Requirements
FPSO Inert Gas [Nitrogen] Description and Design Requirements

Feb. 18, 2020

The FPSO topside typically includes a nitrogen generation and distribution system. The system should be designed to provide sufficient nitrogen for blanketing and purging of the process system in connection with minor repair/maintenance work, blanketing of methanol tanks, continuous purging …

How to effectively use Adjusts and Recycle Operations?
How to effectively use Adjusts and Recycle Operations?

Feb. 17, 2020

What are the Adjust and recycle logical operations?Adjust and recycle logical operations are examples of iterative calculation routines. That is, these operations take an initial guess and run the calculation with that guess. The result is compared against a target …

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Featured Articles


Determining current requirements for coated lines including when pipe-to-soil potential values are estimated
Determining current requirements for coated lines including when pipe-to-soil potential values are estimated

Determining current requirements for coated lines including when pipe-to-soil potential values are estimatedTo determining current requirements for coated lines:Start survey along the line after a polarization run of three or …

Heat Tracing lessons learned
Heat Tracing lessons learned

Handling of energized tracers involves electrical and thermal hazardsWhile performing mechanical maintenance, a contractor received an electric shock while handling an energized self-limiting heating cable that was being removed from …

Estimate liquid flow rate from a pipe given horizontal and vertical discharged dimensions
Estimate liquid flow rate from a pipe given horizontal and vertical discharged dimensions

A quick and surprisingly accurate method of determining liquid discharge from an open ended horizontal pipe makes use of the formula:GPM = (2.56 * X * d2) / Y1/2Where:GPM = …

Portable Utility Hoses
Portable Utility Hoses

Portable Utility Hoses used in the energy industry to transfer air, water, steam, condensate, and nitrogen are often subject to heavy usage. If hoses are not properly maintained, safety incidents …

Common gas industry terminology
Common gas industry terminology

Associated Gas — Associated Gas is found in reservoir where gas is dissolved in crude oil (solution gas) and in some cases also in contact with underlying gas-saturated crude (gas-cap …

Calculate leakage from gas line using pressure drop method
Calculate leakage from gas line using pressure drop method

To calculate the leakage in MMcf (Million Cubic Feet) per year at a base pressure of 14.4 psia and a temperature of 60°F, take as a basis a one mile …

Calculate pipe size requirements for increasing throughput volumes of natural gas
Calculate pipe size requirements for increasing throughput volumes of natural gas

Reflects the capacity to pipe size relationship when L (length), P1 (inlet pressure) and P2 (outlet pressure) are constant.

Heating and cooling coil valve test procedures to detect leaks for air handlers and fan coil terminal units
Heating and cooling coil valve test procedures to detect leaks for air handlers and fan coil terminal units

To determine whether there is a leakage in the air handlers, fan coil and terminal units, leak-by test methods in this document can assist in verifying proper system performance in …

Trouble shooting cathodic protection systems: Magnesium anode system
Trouble shooting cathodic protection systems: Magnesium anode system

The basic technique is the same as "trouble shooting cathodic protection systems: rectifier-ground bed"; more measurements are required, because of the multiplicity of drain points.First, the current output of stations …