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Causes of Static Charge from Liquid Flow and the Precautions Needed
Causes of Static Charge from Liquid Flow and the Precautions Needed

Electrostatic charge formation in tanks and vessels in which hydrocarbons or chemicals are pumped or stirred is widely recognized as a serious hazard. This electricity, which is generated in tanks …

What is the Rich/Lean Amine Loading and what is the appropriate value for them?
What is the Rich/Lean Amine Loading and what is the appropriate value for them?

Amine loading is calculated as the mole ratio of acid gas to the solvent. Rich amine loading (RAL) is referred to the acid gas absorber bottoms liquid which is rich …

What is the criterion for selecting operating pressures for multistage separator systems?
What is the criterion for selecting operating pressures for multistage separator systems?

Operating pressures of multistage separation systems can very across the wide range. The maximum OP for of a separator will be no higher than sales gas pressure accept in the …

Process Analyzer Sample Systems
Process Analyzer Sample Systems

Aug. 30, 2020

Process Analyzer Sample Systems are common to almost all process (on-line) analyzer installations, but often overlooked or not addressed adequately. They are usually 80% of the challenge (and support requirements) of an analyzer system. Several elements are crucial to consider …

What is Rich/Lean Amine Loading means and what should be there typical values?
What is Rich/Lean Amine Loading means and what should be there typical values?

Aug. 25, 2020

Rich/Lean Amine Loading (RAL/LAL) refers to the amount of acid gases (CO2, H2S etc,) dissolved in a given amount of amine. RAL and LAL is a very important factor for the operation, maintenance and performance of an amine plant.To remove …

Tank Blending
Tank Blending

Aug. 17, 2020

This document discusses a simple low cost tank blending method. It is referred to as a shrouded blending nozzle system, and it works quite well. The shroud causes the jet nozzle to educt a large quantity of surrounding fluid, improving …

Quench Control - An advanced approach for temperature control
Quench Control - An advanced approach for temperature control

Aug. 1, 2020

Quench control is used in closed loop refrigerant applications where cooling of the hot recycle gas stream is achieved by direct mixing of a cold multi-phase gas/liquid. The liquids used for quenching are already produced by operation of the refrigeration …

Comparing costs of gas and many types of fuels
Comparing costs of gas and many types of fuels

May 16, 2020

Consideration of practical replacements for gas such as coal, heavy fuel oil, middle distillates, LPG and vice versa.Fuels considered most practical replacements for gas include coal, heavy fuel oils, middle distillates (such as kerosene type turbo fuel and burner fuel …

Cause and effect of exceeding service ratings of heat tracing materials
Cause and effect of exceeding service ratings of heat tracing materials

April 29, 2020

The following lesson learned outlines an installation of pipeline heat tracing for a new process unit within an existing chemical/petrochemical facility. The system design consisted of self-limiting cables for process pipeline heating with a 240-volt power distribution supply (three-phase ungrounded …

Natural gas flow meter measurement types
Natural gas flow meter measurement types

April 11, 2020

Gas flow meter is a mechanical device for automatically measuring quantities of gas. Some of the more popular than others depending on application and requirements. The most important types are:Diaphragm flow meters — Diaphragm flow meters are gas meters in …

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Featured Articles


Polyethylene (PE) Material Properties
Polyethylene (PE) Material Properties

Polyethylene (PE) is the most commonly applied liner material and one of the most widely produced plastics in the world (tens of millions of tons are produced worldwide each year). …

Calculate the amount of gas contained in a given pipeline section
Calculate the amount of gas contained in a given pipeline section

The approximate amount of gas (cubic feet of gas) in standard conditions in 1000 feet of pipeline can be calculated using the following formula.Amount of Gas (ft3) = d2 * …

Properties of Water in the range 0 - 100 °C
Properties of Water in the range 0 - 100 °C

Table below summarizes the available values of the density, specific heat capacity at constant pressure (Cp), vapor pressure, viscosity, thermal conductivity, dielectric constant, and surface tension for liquid water in …

High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) effects on pipelines
High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) effects on pipelines

A pipeline collects, conducts and discharges electric current of high voltage direct current (HVDC) origin as a result of the electric field established by the DC current transmitted through the …

Design philosophy for the flare, vent, relief, and blowdown systems
Design philosophy for the flare, vent, relief, and blowdown systems

The purpose of this document is to describe the design philosophy for the flare, vent, relief, and blowdown systems. This philosophy helps to establish the design basis for each of …

Mechanical System Isolation for offshore facilities
Mechanical System Isolation for offshore facilities

This document suggests the minimum requirements for the selection and installation of mechanical isolation devices such as isolation valves, spades, spectacle blinds, removable spool pieces, drain lines, and vent lines …

Active Fire Protection for Offshore Facilities
Active Fire Protection for Offshore Facilities

The term “Fire Protection” as used herein includes active and passive fire protection.This section, Active Fire Protection outlines the intended use of active (water and/or foam) systems to prevent or …

Passive Fire Protection for Offshore Facilities
Passive Fire Protection for Offshore Facilities

Passive Fire Protection focuses on the protection of structures in the process areas and outlines the general requirements for passive fire protection and active fire protection of structures in light …

Determining current requirements for coated lines including when pipe-to-soil potential values are estimated
Determining current requirements for coated lines including when pipe-to-soil potential values are estimated

Determining current requirements for coated lines including when pipe-to-soil potential values are estimatedTo determining current requirements for coated lines:Start survey along the line after a polarization run of three or …