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Comparing costs of gas and many types of fuels
Comparing costs of gas and many types of fuels

Consideration of practical replacements for gas such as coal, heavy fuel oil, middle distillates, LPG and vice versa.Fuels considered most practical replacements for gas include coal, heavy fuel oils, middle …

Cause and effect of exceeding service ratings of heat tracing materials
Cause and effect of exceeding service ratings of heat tracing materials

The following lesson learned outlines an installation of pipeline heat tracing for a new process unit within an existing chemical/petrochemical facility. The system design consisted of self-limiting cables for process …

Natural gas flow meter measurement types
Natural gas flow meter measurement types

Gas flow meter is a mechanical device for automatically measuring quantities of gas. Some of the more popular than others depending on application and requirements. The most important types are:Diaphragm …

Control valve maintenance and things to do to extend control valves life
Control valve maintenance and things to do to extend control valves life

April 2, 2020

Always follow the control valve manufacturer’s maintenance manuals. Typical maintenance topics are summarized here together with recommendation to extend the life of the control valves. Optimization of control valve assets depends on an effective maintenance philosophy and program. Three of …

How to control corrosion at compressor stations
How to control corrosion at compressor stations

March 15, 2020

Corrosion failures at compressor stations result from carelessness mostly on the part of the users or poor choices of material and/or configuration by the project.The following factors should be considered when studying options for the project:Coat everything underground, except ground …

Steam Traps selection and advantages vs. disadvantages of each type
Steam Traps selection and advantages vs. disadvantages of each type

March 2, 2020

There are many factors that affect steam generating system in the energy industry, and multiple pros and cons in selecting a right steam trap for your application, the following are advantages vs. disadvantages of each type of steam trap to …

What are corrosion coupons and corrosion probes and holders?
What are corrosion coupons and corrosion probes and holders?

Feb. 19, 2020

Corrosion coupons, probes, holders are corrosion-sensing devices that can detect the rate of corrosion in any process environment.Corrosion coupons are probably the oldest and simple and very effective method for corrosion and erosion studies that take place in a specific …

FPSO Inert Gas [Nitrogen] Description and Design Requirements
FPSO Inert Gas [Nitrogen] Description and Design Requirements

Feb. 18, 2020

The FPSO topside typically includes a nitrogen generation and distribution system. The system should be designed to provide sufficient nitrogen for blanketing and purging of the process system in connection with minor repair/maintenance work, blanketing of methanol tanks, continuous purging …

How to effectively use Adjusts and Recycle Operations?
How to effectively use Adjusts and Recycle Operations?

Feb. 17, 2020

What are the Adjust and recycle logical operations?Adjust and recycle logical operations are examples of iterative calculation routines. That is, these operations take an initial guess and run the calculation with that guess. The result is compared against a target …

Thermal Insulation Credit for Pressure Relief Valve Sizing Calculation
Thermal Insulation Credit for Pressure Relief Valve Sizing Calculation

Feb. 16, 2020

Credit factors for insulation in determining the minimum Pressure Relief valve sizes for fire exposure should be as per API RP 521 with following additional guidelines:Credit can be taken for the insulation systems on steel vessels and vessels constructed of …

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Featured Articles


Process Overview of Steam Methane Reforming (SMR) in Hydrogen Plant
Process Overview of Steam Methane Reforming (SMR) in Hydrogen Plant

Refinery's unit that produces hydrogen for use as a feed stock (natural gas, refinery offgas, liquefied petroleum gas or naphtha) in other processing units in the facility. Gaseous hydrocarbons and …

Process Overview of Gasoline Treater
Process Overview of Gasoline Treater

Gasoline treating is a vital part of the modernized refinery operation. The gasoline treater includes treating facilities for Light Straight Run (LSR) Naphtha along with Potassium Cresylate treat solution regeneration. …

Types of manual valves and their application
Types of manual valves and their application

Each valve type has various design details that differ based on manufacturer. The following provides a brief description on types and uses of manual valves in the industry.Ball Valve is …

Renewable Energy produced by Fischer-Tropsch process power generation
Renewable Energy produced by Fischer-Tropsch process power generation

Electricity produced by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process are generated by generators. Key components of the power generation of the renewable energy consist of a boiler, gas turbine generator, Heat Recovery Steam …

Renewable Energy produced by Fischer-Tropsch process product upgrading unit
Renewable Energy produced by Fischer-Tropsch process product upgrading unit

Light Fischer-Tropsch Liquid (LFTL) and Wax Hydrocarbon are processed in the Product Upgrading Unit. Product upgrading includes a Unionfining Process Unit and a Unicracking Process Unit.Unionfining is a hydrotreating process …

Fischer-Tropsch process to produce syngas from green waste
Fischer-Tropsch process to produce syngas from green waste

Case Study: A renewable energy plant converting 1000 TPD (dry) urban green waste can generate 600 BPD of Fischer-Tropsch fuels and 16.5 MW of export electricity to yield 466 bbl/day …

High Purity Hydrogen produced by Fischer-Tropsch process
High Purity Hydrogen produced by Fischer-Tropsch process

Fischer-Tropsch's high purity hydrogen required for the Unionfining Unit and Unicracking Unit is supplied by a Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) system. The hydrogen requirement is met by separating other gases …

Fischer-Tropsch gasification system to produce syngas from green waste
Fischer-Tropsch gasification system to produce syngas from green waste

Case Study: A renewable energy plant converting 1000 TPD (dry) urban green waste can generate 600 BPD of Fischer-Tropsch fuels and 16.5 MW of export electricity to yield 466 bbl/day …

Feed Drying & Conditioning System for Green Waste
Feed Drying & Conditioning System for Green Waste

The heating media used in the drying and conditioning of green waste is flue gas from the fluid bed combustor, supplemented by 400# steam. The dryer equipment includes an Selective …